• Dr Ruby Pawankar

COVID-19 Publications

Updated: 6 days ago

Vivid Resources:

Optimal Management of Hereditary Angioedema: Shared Decision-Making

All patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) must have access to on-demand therapy to treat attacks and may benefit from prophylactic therapy to reduce the attack frequency. Treatment decisions should be individualized, based on patient preferences and needs. One method for facilitating individualized therapy is shared decision-making (SDM), a widely used methodology for making treatment decisions among multiple therapeutic options. We propose a three-phase “3D” model (Discover, Discuss, Decide) for SDM in HAE. The Discover phase focuses on improving the physician’s understanding of the patient’s needs and understanding of the available therapeutic choices. The Discuss phase considers the alternatives, allowing a collaborative, informed treatment selection in the Decision phase. The 3D model is an ongoing, iterative process based on the patient’s changing needs and response to therapy. Uncovering the patient’s therapy goals through appropriate questions during these phases can help uncover relevant information for treatment selection information. SDM based on the 3D model can be a beneficial tool for optimizing therapy in HAE.

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Neutralizing Activity of BNT162b2-Elicited Serum — Preliminary Report

BNT162b2 is a nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine expressing the full-length prefusion spike glycoprotein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving approximately 44,000 participants, immunization conferred 95% efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).

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SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: Much Accomplished, Much to Learn

Over the next weeks and months, physicians will face questions regarding the science, safety, and efficacy of the first wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines to be authorized and distributed. In most cases these vaccine platforms will be new technologies that have not previously been administered other than through clinical trials. Although the initial data on efficacy and safety are extraordinarily encouraging, many questions remain regarding who should receive these vaccines and the immediate, intermediate, and long-term impact of the vaccination program on the pandemic. In this article, we provide a perspective on the vaccines furthest along in development in the United States, 2 of which have received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have been recommended for use by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is important to note that an EUA by the FDA is a mechanism used during a declared public health emergency to get potentially effective interventions as quickly as possible to those who might benefit and is not the same as formal FDA approval.

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SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and the Growing Threat of Viral Variants

In November 2019, a bat coronavirus made its debut in the human population. Since that time, the virus has continued to adapt, resulting in a series of viral variants. The question that the world faces in early 2021 is whether these new variants will escape recognition by vaccine-induced immunity.

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Interim Results of a Phase 1–2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine

Efficacious vaccines are urgently needed to contain the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A candidate vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, is a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector encoding a full-length and stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

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FDA Briefing Document: Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine

On November 30, 2020, ModernaTX (the Sponsor) submitted an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) request to FDA for an investigational COVID-19 vaccine (mRNA-1273) intended to prevent COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The vaccine is based on the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S) antigen encoded by RNA and formulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). The proposed use under an EUA is for active immunization for the prevention of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in individuals 18 years of age and older. The proposed dosing regimen is 2 doses, 100 μg each, administered 1 month apart.

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COVID-19 and asthma, the good or the bad? - Jiu-Yao Wang

Since its first report in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the novel pandemic COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, has rampaged throughout the world.1 People with asthma and allergies are usually at greater risk of more severe outcomes with virus infections. However, recent reports have accumulated evidences that the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma in patients with COVID-19 is lower than expected among other comorbidities and risk factors of the severe form of COVID-19 (Appendix S1 for additional reference 1-3). Why are then allergic diseases and asthma underrepresented as co-morbid risk factors in patients with COVID-19? Is this a sampling bias in the currently published clinical reports or is there a real discrepancy in the prevalence of asthma among COVID-19-infected patients that may glean a light for us to fight this pandemic? Here, we hypothesize the plausible mechanisms in asthmatics based on available publications (Appendix S1) that may have effects in determining their susceptibility to and disease severity with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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Review of immunomodulators as therapeutic interventions for Covid-19 infections (Version 2.0) - PSAAI

The pandemic outbreak of the coronavirus disease continues to spread all over the world. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a potentially severe acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Majority of patients present with mild symptoms. However, 14% may present with severe disease with a 3% to 5% mortality rate. Drugs or biologics have not been proven to be consistently effective in the treatment of the cytokine storm seen in those presenting with severe disease. Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) or cytokine release syndrome (CRS) refers to a group of severe hyper-inflammatory disorders which are part of the spectrum of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Primary HLH have a genetic basis, while secondary or acquired HLH are induced by infections, malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In the context of rheumatologic disease, systemic hyperinflammatory states are called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Clinically, it commonly presents as systemic inflammation with multiple organ failure, and high inflammatory parameters.

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Joint statement on the current epidemics of new Coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 - MSAI x My POPI

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a family of viruses that cause respiratory tract infections. They range from common colds to more serious illnesses like pneumonia. Although coronaviruses commonly cause disease in animals, they can infect people too and spread between them. Recent examples include Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), and Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV).

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Artificial intelligence–enabled rapid diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 - Nature Medicine

In this study, we used artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to integrate chest CT findings with clinical symptoms, exposure history and laboratory testing to rapidly diagnose patients who are positive for COVID-19. Among a total of 905 patients tested by real-time RT–PCR assay and next-generation sequencing RT–PCR, 419 (46.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In a test set of 279 patients, the AI system achieved an area under the curve of 0.92 and had equal sensitivity as compared to a senior thoracic radiologist. The AI system also improved the detection of patients who were positive for COVID-19 via RT–PCR who presented with normal CT scans, correctly identifying 17 of 25 (68%) patients, whereas radiologists classified all of these patients as COVID-19 negative. When CT scans and associated clinical history are available, the proposed AI system can help to rapidly diagnose COVID-19 patients.

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Related Medical Studies

SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children

As of March 10, 2020, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for more than 110,000 infections and 4000 deaths worldwide, but data regarding the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of infected children are limited.1-3 A recent review of 72,314 cases by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed that less than 1% of the cases were in children younger than 10 years of age.2 In order to determine the spectrum of disease in children, we evaluated children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated at the Wuhan Children’s Hospital, the only center assigned by the central government for treating infected children under 16 years of age in Wuhan. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic children with known contact with persons having confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated. Nasopharyngeal or throat swabs were obtained for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by established methods.4 The clinical outcomes were monitored up to March 8, 2020. Read more here…. -> link to below link

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Am I Part of the Cure or Am I Part of the Disease? Keeping Coronavirus Out When a Doctor Comes Home

Last year, after a month of dry cough and shortness of breath while walking up the steep steps of Fillmore Street in San Francisco, Mary, my mother-in-law and housemate, noticed that she was becoming more and more easily winded. When her symptoms didn’t improve over the next several weeks, her doctors at the University of California, San Francisco, ordered a CT scan. They found bronchiolitis obliterans, a chronic, progressive lung condition that leads to gradually worsening lung disease and respiratory collapse. There is no treatment for this disease, whose natural history ends in lung transplantation for patients who are young and healthy enough to undergo it. Mary has spent every day of the past year and a half focused on respiratory physiotherapy, practicing breathing techniques that ease her symptoms but do little to slow disease progression. Read more here…. -> link to below link

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